Revised Annotated Bibliography

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DiMoro, Anthony. The Growing Impact of Social Media On Today’s Sports Culture. Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 2 July 2015, 

As this news article was published by Forbes, it offers a new lens for my topic: it takes on a business perspective and analyzes the importance of internet marketing of sports. Ultimately, Dimoro writes about how social media has impacted modern business in general, and he argues that utilizing social media has been most beneficial for all industries because it allows for more marketing opportunity. He writes, “if you are not minding your Social Media presence than you are not fully branding yourself”. Dimoro has been committed to studying this- he took to twitter to poll sports fans on whether athlete social media behavior affects their opinions. For athletes to fully brand themselves, they must utilize social media in order to build an even stronger fan base since “Over a third (37%) of Twitter users will buy from a brand they follow“. This ultimately says that consumers will follow and actively support those they follow on social media. In addition to supporting individuals, fans might also support and follow organizations or events. Almost every sports related show or event has its own hashtag, and this has become a way for audiences to engage in a way that was not possible years ago. Dimoro uses examples like #BecauseItstheCup to show how social media drives engagement among fans. The main takeaway from this print source is that sport talk is a vital part of sports culture, and social media has become a place to connect all parties of this sport talk together to more importantly, engage in discussion and elevate brands. All of the specific statistics and examples of this will definitely help me with my project, and Dimoro’s findings are consistent with my projected thesis.  

Litchfield, Chelsea, et al. Virtual Maltreatment: Sexualisation and Social Media Abuse in Sport. Psychology of Women Section Review, 2016. 

In this recent study, the authors examine virtual maltreatment, which is defined by them as “direct or non-direct online communication that is designed to cause emotional or psychological upset, through hostile, abusive and bullying comments” as it pertained to the particular case of tennis player Maria Sharapova during her 2015 Wimbelodon run. The two social media platforms that were analyzed were Facebook and Twitter, and abusive comments that mentioned Sharapova’s physical attraction and sexuality were extracted for further examination. Ultimately, they found that the high volume of comments that were considered virtual maltreatment mirrored previously done studies of sports media as a whole on female athletes. They suggest that the open-forum aspect of new social media is non beneficial toward the progression of female athletes in society because these online spaces create an environment where ordinary individuals are given the power to reach an elite group of people and potentially put out antisocial behaviors that they were otherwise not given the opportunity to present. This source is extremely useful for my project because it focuses on the gendered lens of this issue, whereas other sources do not address this in depth. This source will help me develop arguments about the interaction between the general public and professional athletes and how social media might lead to negative interactions.  

Rule, Heather. How Social Media Has Changed the World of Sports Journalism. National Institute for Social Media. 6, July, 2017. 

In this article, Rule discusses how the emergence of new social media has turned watching sports into multi-tasking: instead of just watching a game, it’s now tweeting and watching, which adds an element of heightened engagement and information. She focuses primarily on Twitter and its function as the first place of contact for sport discourse. Twitter acts generally as a place for people to jot down their initial thoughts, and in the world of sports, Rule notes that news sources and journalists will still cover important events, but instead of it being the first source of information, it is behind social media. Social media is breaking news without the title of “Breaking News”. Rule also notes how fans do not even have to watch games any more on live television, and that they can just learn about it via social media updates. Essentially, the purpose of this article is to show how both gatekeepers of media, and those who consume it, are forced into this world of instant sharing. Fans come gatekeepers in this respect, and this is important to know for my study because it shows how digital media contributes to amateurism, as addressed by other sources as well. 

Serazio, Michael. The Power of Sports: Media and Spectacle in American Culture. New York University Press. 2019.

In his book, Serazio makes the case for sports’ irreplaceable importance in modern American culture- sports give some people power, others meaning, and some both. For this reason, it is no wonder why sports media is so vastly consumed by the American public. Serazio claims that in the age of digital media, sports lays in a unique position with “digital plentitude”. He has found that in the last 40 years, there has been a dramatic increase in highlight shows, analysis shows, and commentary, perhaps due to the opportunity for amateurs to get involved in the sports world. Players, too, have been deeply impacted by this digital plentitude has allowed them to build their brands. The most important takeaway from Serazio is that social media in the realm of sports has disrupted traditional temporal routines- it has increased the speed of the way people consume media, it’s far more immediate than the past. Social media has shifted the hierarchy of how we get information, and Serazio argues this is especially prevalent in sports discourse. This source will be very helpful for my project because it is from this year and therefore is kept completely up to speed with changes of social media. It also has given me a new perspective on how media in general affects daily routines of people and instead of being rare and sparse, information is accessible and in abundance. 

Sutera, David M. Sports Fans 2.0: How Fans Are Using Social Media to Get Closer to the Game. Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2013.

As this is a book and not a scientific journal entry, Sutera walks his audience through real-life examples of the evolution of sports fans’ interactions with professional athletes through media. This is not to say he does not conduct research though, as he clearly states that he takes on the role of a “participant-observer ethnographer” in order to properly analyze sport fans’ use of social media as fan engagement. Through observation and participation, he comes to the conclusion that since the birth of new media, fans have increasingly become better at “reaching the game”, without actually being part of these professional organizations. He claims that even just fifteen years ago, if you were not a player, it was hard to get involved in the sports world. Now, however, technology has enhanced fan participation, making it easier to directly involve oneself in the sports atmosphere. This source is very useful for my project because it takes me through specific examples of the evolution of how fans use media to participate in professional sports. This source also really intrigues me because relates a lot to Janet Murray’s “participatory” digital affordance.

This revised annotated bibliography includes more updated sources as well as more specific annotations of each source. The sources are also alphabetized.

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